Technology policy

Policy engagement

  1. Ajay Shah, Member, Department of Telecommunications ITU-T SG3 on tariffs and accounting matters for in-ternational telecommunications services, 2017–2020

  2. Ajay Shah, Member, Global Partnership on AI, Future of Work AI Working Group, 2020-present

  3. Comments on the Report by the Committee of Experts on Non-Personal Data Governance Framework, January 7, 2021. This has also been selected for publication in the International Journal of Data Science and Big Data Analytics (forthcoming) (Rishab Bailey, Renuka Sane, Smriti Parsheera)

  4. Participant in the Data Governance Network Working Group on CCTNS, 2021 (ongoing) (Rishab Bailey)

  5. Comments on the Strategy for National Open Digital Ecosystems (NODE) Consultation Whitepaper, May 31, 2020 (Rishab Bailey, Harleen Kaur, Faiza Rahman, Renuka Sane).

  6. Participated in consultation and submitted comments on amendment of the Information Technology Act, 2000, carried out by C-DEP, May 2020 (Rishab Bailey and Smriti Parsheera)

  7. Participated in consultations on the Santa Clara Principles on Transparency and Accountability in Content Moderation, organised by the Open Technology Institute, 2020 (Rishab Bailey and Faiza Rahman).

  8. Participated in consultations on Facebook’s External Oversight Board, February 2019 (Rishab Bailey and Faiza Rahman)

  9. Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019: Rishab Bailey, Smriti Parsheera, Vrinda Bhandari, Faiza Rahman, Comments on the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019, (abridged version of which was published in public on 3 April and April 10, 2020) Joint Submission with IT For Change, IDFC Institute, Internet Democracy Project, on the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019 Invited by the Parliamentary Committee on the PDP Bill, to present comments on the PDP Bill and suggest revisions thereto.

  10. Comments on the (draft) Information Technology [Intermediaries Guidelines (Amendment) Rules], 2018, January 31, 2019 (Rishab Bailey, Smriti Parsheera, Faiza Rahman)

Research papers

  1. Rishab Bailey, Vrinda Bhandari, Faiza Rahman, Backdoors to Encryption: Analysing an Intermediary’s Duty to Provide ‘Technical Assistance’, DGN Working Paper 15, February 2021

  2. Rishab Bailey and Vrinda Bhandari, Towards Holistic Regulation of Online Hate Speech, in the volume titled Rethinking Legal-Institutional Approaches to Sexist Hate Speech in India, IT For Change, February 2021

  3. Rishab Bailey, Renuka Sane, Trishee Goyal, Ridhi Varma, Analysing India’s KYC Framework: Can we do things better?, January 22, 2021

  4. Varun Sen Bahl, Faiza Rahman and Rishab Bailey, Internet intermediaries and online harms: Regulatory Responses, DGN Working Paper 06, March 2020

  5. Rishab Bailey and Trishee Goyal, Fiduciary Relationships as a Means to Protect Privacy: Examining the use of the fiduciary concept in the draft Personal Data Protection Bill, 2018, DGN Working Paper 4, November 2019

  6. Smriti Parsheera, Adoption and Regulation of Facial Recognition Technologies in India: Why and Why Not?, DGN Working Paper 05, November 2019

  7. Rishab Bailey, Smriti Parsheera, Faiza Rahman, Renuka Sane, Disclosures in Privacy Policies: Does ‘notice and consent’ work?. NIPFP WP No. 246, December 11, 2018. A revised version has been selected for publication in the Loyola Consumer Law Review (forthcoming).


  1. Rishab Bailey and Parminderjeet Singh, IT Rules: A case of overreach?, The Hindu Parley Podcast, June 3, 2021

  2. Rishab Bailey and Vrinda Bhandari, Power play to bring the digital ecosystem to heel, The Hindu, June 1, 2021

  3. Rishab Bailey and Vrinda Bhandari, Are tougher laws the answer to check online abuse?, The Hindu, November 27, 2020

  4. Rishab Bailey and Renuka Sane, A missed opportunity, The Hindu, September 3, 2020

  5. Rishab Bailey, Draft Information Technology Rules of December 2018 are disproportionate, Mint, June 7, 2020

  6. Rishab Bailey and Mishi Chowdhary, Are social media platforms the arbiters of truth?, (Article, podcast), The Hindu, June 5, 2020

  7. Rishab Bailey, Where is your data?, Aapti Institute, July 23, 2020.

  8. Rishab Bailey, The Hindu Explains What Will Be the Impact of the Chinese Apps Ban, July 5, 2020

  9. Rishab Bailey, The issues around data localisation, The Hindu, February 2020.

  10. Rishab Bailey, Sarvjeet Singh, Udbhav Tiwary, Who should be responsible for curbing hate speech and fake news?, Newslaundry, January 21, 2020

  11. Rishab Bailey and Vrinda Bhandari, Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019: Considering consent and offences, Medianama, January 6, 2020

  12. Rishab Bailey and Smriti Parsheera, The Aadhaar judgment uses the right to privacy test in two completely different ways,, September 27, 2018

  13. Rishab Bailey, Smriti Parsheera, Vrinda Bhandari, Faiza Rahman, Placing surveillance reforms in the data protection debate, LEAP Blog, August 6, 2018